Noninvasive Blood Pressure Measurements & Standardization Workshop 2007
"One Hundred Years Later: Are We Really Measuring Blood Pressure?"
February 2, 2007  Ottawa, Ontario, Canada










Opening Address
       Dr. James McLaren, Director General, Institute for National Measurement Standards, National Research Council of Canada

Dr. James McLaren's Bio:
Dr. James W. (Jim) McLaren is the Director General of the Institute for National Measurement Standards (INMS) of the National Research Council of Canada (NRC). He joined NRC as a Research Associate in 1976, shortly after completion of his Ph.D. in analytical chemistry at Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario. His research interests at NRC focused on development and characterization of instrumentation for inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICPAES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), with a particular interest in application of these two techniques to the determination of trace elements in environmental samples including both fresh and saline natural waters, marine sediments and biological tissues. McLaren's contributions to the development of ICPMS were recognized by the Canadian Society for Chemistry in 1988 with the award of the W.A.E. McBryde Medal for Analytical Chemistry, and by the Spectroscopy Society of Canada in 1994 with the Barringer Spectroscopy Award.


From 1995 until 2000, McLaren served as Group Leader for Chemical Metrology in INMS. Many of the activities of this group are aimed to assist analytical laboratories in both the public and private sectors in assuring the accuracy of determinations of inorganic and organic contaminants in environmental samples. These activities include the development of reliable methodologies, the provision of certified reference materials and the co-ordination of laboratory proficiency testing exercises. He also became increasingly active in international metrology activities that are co-ordinated under the auspices of the International Committee of Weights and Measures.
Dr. McLaren acquired a broader knowledge of NRC during a 2-year period from 1997-1999, when he served as Leader of the NRC Competency Project, the objective of which was to implement competency-based human resources management at NRC. He is currently a member of the Human Resources Management Steering Committee, which serves as an advisory board to the Human Resources Branch.
Dr. McLaren was appointed INMS Director, Chemical and Mechanical Standards in January 2000, assuming responsibility for INMS activities in chemical metrology, dimensional metrology, mass standards, acoustical standards and time and frequency metrology. Following a re-organization of INMS in late 2004, he successfully competed for his current position.

Opening Address
      Dr. Roman Szumski, Vice-President, Life Sciences, National Research Council of Canada

Dr. Roman Szumski's Bio:
The In 2005, Dr. Roman Szumski was appointed the National Research Council's Vice-President, Life Sciences.
A medical doctor and pathologist by training, Dr. Szumski is recognized as a visionary leader and an innovative manager with unique experience in building strategic public-private sector partnerships in the life sciences sector. He was the founding CEO of Calgary Laboratory Services, and more recently Vice-President (Science & Technology) of MDS Inc.
During his years at MDS headquarters, Dr. Szumski held executive-level responsibility for scientific assets of the firm, with more than 10,000 employees, $1.8 billion in annual sales and diverse international business interests. While at MDS, he also led the development of new business initiatives in cancer therapeutics and personalized medicine.
As a founding CEO of Calgary Laboratory Services, and as a President of a private firm,
Dr. Szumski championed and built a new collaboration between the Calgary Regional Health Authority and the private sector that facilitated major improvements in service and efficiency in the services offered through seven public and private sector labs. His career at Calgary Medical Laboratories included the roles of pathologist, director of microbiology, and medical director. He also worked in the Department of Pathology at the University of Calgary.
Dr. Szumski is a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, and he holds degrees from Queen's and McGill universities.



Keynote Address: Medical Devices and Blood Pressure Measurement Technology
      Dr. Tofy Mussivand, Chair and Director of Cardiovascular Devices Division, University of Ottawa Heart Institute
Professor, Surgery and Engineering, Medical Devices Program, University of Ottawa and Carleton University

Dr. Tofy Mussivand’s Bio:
Dr. Tofy Mussivand received his undergraduate education and training in engineering and management. Following many successful years in senior positions in government, crown corporations, and the private sector, Dr. Mussivand went on to receive his doctorate in Medical Engineering and Medical Sciences at the University of Akron and Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine. Thereafter, Dr. Mussivand joined the internationally acclaimed Cleveland Clinic Hospital and Research Foundation where he gained invaluable knowledge and experience in the development of medical devices, artificial hearts, and cardiac care. In 1989, Dr. Mussivand was invited to return to Canada to continue his pioneering work in the field of medical devices.
Dr. Mussivand has achieved both national and global recognition. His breakthroughs have resulted in the establishment of scientific eminence for Canada in the fields of medical devices, artificial hearts, remote power transfer, in situ sterilization, etc. Presently, he is Professor of Surgery and Engineering at the University of Ottawa and Carleton University; Chair and Director, Cardiovascular Devices Division of the University of Ottawa Heart Institute (UOHI); and Medical Devices Program of both the University of Ottawa and Carleton University.
Combining his scientific, management, and business expertise, Dr. Mussivand has been the Chairman of several boards, member of various Boards of Directors, and the CEO of several successful corporations. His leadership has been responsible for the creation of over 1000 man-years in the Canadian work force and has been the catalyst for an influx of more than $200 million, primarily from outside of Canada, during the last ten years.
Dr. Mussivand's areas of interest and contributions include artificial hearts (mechanical circulatory support devices) as treatment for heart failure, remote power transfer for implantable medical devices, remote patient monitoring (telemedicine), biofluid dynamics to reduce/eliminate thrombosis in blood conducting devices, patient care simulation centre, detection devices and methods for detection, in situ sterilization, medical devices (failure analysis and regulatory process), and medical sensors.
Dr. Mussivand has published over 250 papers, books, and technical articles and supervised and taught over 300 students, residents, and postdoctoral Fellows.



Message from the Moderator: The Ottawa-Carleton Institute for Biomedical Engineering Initiatives and Programs  
      Dr.  Rafik Goubran, Acting Dean, Faculty of Engineering and Design, Carleton University, Ottawa

Dr.  Rafik Goubran's Bio:
Dr. Goubran is currently Professor and Acting Dean of Faculty of Engineering and Design at Carleton University. Dr. Goubran was born in Cairo, Egypt, in 1955. He received the B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees in Electrical Engineering from the department of Electronics and Communications Engineering, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt, in 1978 and 1981 respectively. He received the Ph.D degree in Electrical Engineering from the Department of Systems and Computer Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada, in 1986. In January 1987, he joined the Department of Systems and Computer Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada, where he is now professor and Chair. He is a member of IEEE and the association of Professional Engineers of Ontario. He acted as a consultant to several industrial and government organizations including Nortel, Mitel, Bell Canada, Vienna Systems (Nokia), Revenue Canada, the Department of National Defense (DND), Bota Teleconferencing, Matcom, the National Research Council of Canada (NRC), and Data Measurement Corporation, U.S.A. His research interests include: Digital Signal Processing (DSP) and its applications in acoustics, speech processing, communications, and analytical chemistry. Voice transmission over IP (VoIP) and ATM networks. Current research projects deal with audio quality improvement in telephony, audio teleconferencing, acoustic echo and noise cancellation, adaptive filter structures, beam forming using microphone arrays, and narcotics detection using ion mobility spectrometry. Other interests include mobile communications, digital systems design, DSP hardware, multiprocessor architectures for DSP, and computer architecture.



IEEE Standardization of Blood Pressure Measurement Initiative
      Dr.  Voicu Groza, Professor, School of Information Technology and Engineering, University of Ottawa, Ottawa 

Debates over the most widely measured vital sign – blood pressure – over the past 100 years are entwined with a core methodological question: ‘How blood pressure should be measured?’ While there are numerous standards for blood pressure measurement, none of them rely on a logically consistent and mathematically competent measurement theory. There are a number of promising approaches to routine blood pressure measurement and the calibration of automatic blood pressure meters, but all of them run into difficulties with the object and objective of measurement. The medical interpretation of blood pressure measurement remains therefore problematic. Recent advances in instrumentation and measurement, however, provide the theoretical and technical support for advancing blood pressure measurement beyond the limits of the century-old Korotkov technique. It is now possible to standardize blood pressure measurement without any reference to habit and skill. To that end, enthusiast members of the IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Society have founded a Group for the Standardization of the Blood Pressure Measurement in the frame of the IEEE TC-25 Technical Committee of Medical and Biological Measurements. The goals and the plans of the newly constituted subcommittee are presented. 

Dr.  Voicu Groza’s Bio:
Voicu Z. Groza received the Dipl. Eng. degree in computer engineering in 1972 and his Doctor of Engineering degree in electrical engineering in 1985, both from the Polytechnic Institute of Timisoara, Romania. He was a professor in the Department of Computer Engineering of the Polytechnic University of Timisoara, Romania, and in 1997, he joined the School of Information Technology and Engineering at the University of Ottawa, Canada. His research interests include quantization theory, distributed intelligent instrumentation and reconfigurable computers. Dr. Groza is the author or coauthor of more than 150 technical papers and 2 patents in these areas. He is a Senior Member of the /IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Society/ and he is currently serving as a Chair of the Ottawa Chapter of this society. Dr. Groza is a founding member of the Subcommittee on Standardization of Blood Pressure Measurement/, in the frame of the /IEEE TC-25 Technical Committee of Medical and Biological Measurements/ of the /IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Society/. He is also a member of the /IEEE Standards Association/, /IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society/, and /IEEE Computational Intelligence Society/. Dr. Groza served as a technical program chair or co-chair of several major international conferences such as /IEEE International Conference on Instrumentation and Measurement /(IMTC 2005), /IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering/ - CCECE 2006, /IEEE International Workshop on Haptic Virtual Environments and their Applications/ - HAVE 2004.


 Health Canada's role in regulation and standards for blood pressure instruments  
      Dr.  Philip D. Neufeld, Manager of the Device Surveillance Division of the Medical Devices Bureau, Health Canada

Blood pressure instruments are regulated as medical devices under the Food and Drugs Act. The Medical Devices Bureau has conducted research into the accuracy required of these devices to provide reliable blood pressure determinations, and the accuracy with which health care professionals can use them. This talk describes some early research studies, current standards for blood pressure instruments, and Health Canada's licensing procedure for these devices.

Dr. Philip Neufeld’s Bio:
Philip D. Neufeld is Manager of the Device Surveillance Division of the Medical Devices Bureau,
Health Canada, which he joined in 1975. He holds a doctorate in physics from the University of Waterloo, Ontario. As Manager of Device Surveillance, he directs the Bureau's activities in laboratory research, testing, and post-market surveillance of medical devices. He conducted research and co-authored two publications on blood pressure measurement, and wrote
a standard under the Medical Devices Regulations for the accuracy of sphygmomanometers.



 The Measurement Problem in Medicine: the Case of Hypertension  
      Dr.  Radu Leca, CTO, Biosign Technologies Inc., Toronto

Measurement-related illness has become a scandalous pandemic. It is now a top cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in the elderly. The extent of this pandemic is described and its main effects in primary care are identified using the case of hypertension – a major reason for visiting a physician. Urgent action by scientists and engineers is recommended under two headings: measurement and standardization.

Dr.  Radu Leca’s Bio:
Radu Leca is a senior biomedical researcher at Biosign Technologies. As a physician, his early work focused on the notion of health and the means of diagnostic optimization. He has recently contributed to the development of a range of new concepts and methods to strengthen the technological basis for autonomous medical care.



Modeling the Human Cardiovascular System
     Dr. Aneta Stefanovska, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK

Contemporary measurement techniques enable noninvasive observations of cardiovascular functions, both from the central and peripheral points of view. Cardiovascular dynamics is found to be characterized by several distinct frequency components, and these are present at each site of the system. The corresponding oscillatory processes are mutually dependent via couplings that lead to amplitude/frequency fluctuations of the characteristic peaks. We describe analysis of several non-invasive simultaneous measurements of cardiovascular signals in healthy subjects of all age and in patients with cardiac failure, diabetes and after acute myocardial infarction. Using phase dynamics approach we then introduce model of the human cardiovascular system based on the coupled nonlinear oscillators. coupled oscillators, cardiovascular oscillations, time-frequency analysis, interactions, synchronization, blood flow, blood pressure, heart rate variability, endothelial vasoregulation.

Dr.  Aneta Stefanovska’s Bio:
Aneta Stefanovska completed her PhD in 1992 combining biocybernetics and synergetics, working partly in Ljubljana and partly in Stuttgart. She then introduced the coupled oscillators approach to cardiovascular dynamics and invested much energy in the improvement of data acquisition and analysis. She headed the Nonlinear Dynamics and Synergetics Group in Ljubljana from 1993. In 2006 she came to Lancaster University as Reader in Medical Physics where she is developing major new initiatives involving the application of nonlinear dynamics to biology and medicine. Aneta Stefanovska is with the Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster and in part with the Nonlinear Dynamics and Synergetics Group, Faculty of Electrical
Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.



 Photonics Methods for Imaging Blood Flow and Oxygen Delivery 
      Dr. Michael Sowa, Senior research officer and leader of the Optical Spectroscopy Group, Institute for Biodiagnostics (IBD), National Research Council of Canada's (NRC), Winnipeg

The National Research Council of Canada (NRC) has helped develop a number of photonics-based imaging methods to determine regional blood perfusion and oxygen delivery. These technologies and their applications in the areas of coronary perfusion, wound assessment, surgical reconstruction and peripheral vascular sufficiency will be presented.

Dr. Michael (Mike) Sowa’s Bio:
Dr. Mike Sowa is a senior research officer and leader of the Optical Spectroscopy Group at the National Research Council of Canada's (NRC) Institute for Biodiagnostics (IBD) in Winnipeg. He joined NRC's Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences (SIMS) as a postdoctoral fellow in 1990, shortly after completion of his Ph.D. in physical chemistry at the University of Manitoba. In 1992 he joined the nascent Institute for Biodiagnostics in Winnipeg to help establish a research program in biomedical vibrational spectroscopy, a program which he now leads. His research interests are targeted at developing medical applications using optical and infrared spectroscopy and translating these developments into clinical practice. Current research activities include the development of near infrared spectroscopic imaging methods to assess acute and chronic wounds. Since 2004, he has been managing NRC's Genomics and Health Initiative program, Managing Chronic Cardiovascular Disease, in which new optical and magnetic resonance imaging methods are being developed to study coronary perfusion, atherosclerosis and myocardial injury and repair.


 Physiological basis of Oscillometric Blood Pressure Measurement
       Jiri Jilek, MS, King/Drew Medical Center, Los Angeles, US

The oscillometric method as used today evaluates oscillometric waveform (OMW) amplitudes  and cuff pressures to determine systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean (MAP) arterial pressures. The determination of MAP is based on vascular unloading. MAP is determined as the cuff pressure at the point of maximal OMW amplitude. SBP and DBP values are determined by a variety of empirically developed algorithmic methods that are not based on the underlying physiology. My studies of OMWs resulted in an attempt to explain the physiology of oscillometric SBP and DBP in terms of the effect blood flow exerts on vascular unloading.The SBP hypothesis states that the slope of OMW amplitude envelope between reference SBP and MAP (S2) is less steep than either the slope (S1) at CPs higher than reference SBP or the slope (S3) between MAP and reference DBP. The transition of S1 to S2 is the point where SBP should be determined. Study of 32 subjects supported the hypothesis. The DBP hypothesis states that the point on the OMW envelope where OMW contour distortions disappear is where DBP should be determined. Data supporting the DBP hypothesis are still being gathered. The flow-based observations are in accordance with the Korotkoff sounds (auscultatory) method. Algorithms recognizing changes in the slopes and algorithms recognizing the transition from distorted to distortion-free OMW contours could improve accuracy of oscillometric blood pressure determination.

Jiri Jilek’s  Bio:
Mr. Jiri Jilek received MSEE degree from University of Southern California (USC), Los Angeles in 1972. From 1972 to 1981 worked as research engineer at USC-Medical Center, Los Angeles, in the field of perinatal medicine. Research projects included a method for evaluation of fetal heart rate variability and an on-line system for evaluation of fetal heart rate patterns. From 1982 to 1989 worked as an independent consultant in the field of medical engineering. Projects included design of pulmonary function monitor and a personal computer based blood pressure monitor. From 1989 to 1997 worked as research engineer at Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles. Projects included development of an experimental system for evaluation of maternal cardiovascular parameters and data acquisition from fetal monitors. From 1997 to the present time has worked at King-Drew Medical Center, Los Angeles as a senior R&D engineer. He has also worked as an independent engineering consultant. Research projects included processing of digital arterial waveforms, development of a system for noninvasive evaluation of  blood pressures and hemodynamics, and a new method for bench-testing of blood pressure monitors. Mr. Jilek published numerous journal and conference papers. In 2002 he became a member of the Association for Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI). Main professional interests are in medical engineering and they include design of analog and digital systems, software development, and research of oscillometric blood pressure waveforms.



Medical standards for medical data communication: IEEE 1073 and HL7
       Dr. ir. Nick Goga, Royal University of Groningen, the Netherlands

The scope of ISO/IEEE 1073 family of standards is to provide open systems communications in healthcare applications, primarily between bedside medical devices and patient care information systems, optimized for the acute care setting. Working in the same area as ISO/IEEE 1073, HL7 is an ANSI accredited standard in the area of healthcare and information science that aims to standardize the exchange, management and integration of electronic healthcare information. This presentation
will outline some key elements of the two standards for medical information exchange trying to give an inside in this world of medical information exchange..

Dr.  ir Nick Goga’s Bio:
Dr. N. Goga holds two doctorates: one in Science from the Technical University of Eindhoven, the Netherlands, and one in Computer Science from the Polytechnic University of Bucharest, Romania. Since 2003 he is a member of the general committee of the ISO/IEEE 1073 standards of medical data communication. Also, he is a honorary president of the HL7 Romania, the Romanian national HL7 association affiliated to HL7 International. HL7 is an ANSI standard for medical data communication. Currently, Dr. Goga works as a researcher in the MD group of the Royal University of Groningen, the Netherlands.



Technological Challenges in Developing Motion & Noise Tolerant Automated Blood Pressure Devices  
      Dr. Stergios Stergiopoulos, Chief Scientist CANAMET Inc., Defence Research and Development Canada
v      Dr. Uri Sagman, MD, FRCPC, Executive Director, The Canadian NanoBusiness Alliance   

Current system concepts for non-invasive monitoring of vital signs are limited in providing reliable blood pressure estimates in vibration & noise intense environments. Although the accuracy of high end blood pressure systems is considered to be sufficient, in most emergency and search and rescue operations, the lack of accuracy of these vital signs measurements makes the relevant system concepts unattractive to medical practitioners.
CANAMET Corporation has overcome some of these limitations by using advanced signal processing techniques that include adaptive interference cancellation and pattern recognition algorithms. The use of these advanced signal processing techniques leads to a feasible system for providing vital sign measurements in challenging noisy environments, such as ambulances and helicopters.
The scope of the presentation is to briefly review the various blood pressure estimation techniques and the technological challenges in developing motion & noise tolerant blood pressure devices. Furthermore, it will review also the clinical testing procedures and issues
relevant with FDA-510K, CSA, CE regulatory approvals.

Dr. Stergios Stergiopoulos’s Bio:
Stergios Stergiopoulos, Ph.D., (Senior member of IEEE and Fellow of Acoustical Society of America) Received the B.Sc. degree from the University of Athens in 1976 and the M.Sc. & Ph.D. degrees in geophysics in 1977 and 1982, respectively, from York University, Toronto, Canada. Presently, he is an Adjunct Research Professor at the Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering of the University of Western Ontario, the founder of CANAMET Inc. and the main innovator of the Defence R&D Canada (DRDC) technologies and patents that have been licensed to Canamet Inc ( These innovation include a number of non-invasive 3D imaging (i.e. cardiac 3D CT, portable 3D/4D ultrasound) and vital signs monitoring (i.e. motion & noise tolerant automated blood pressure & intracranial ultrasound) technologies. To complete their development and their commercialization process, Dr. Stergiopoulos raised approximately $11 million from private investors and Government grants. He has an extensive background in science and research. From 1991 to 2003 he was a Senior Defence Scientist at the Defence R&D Canada. From 1988 to 1991, he was with the NATO SACLANT Centre in La Spezia, Italy, where he performed both theoretical and experimental research in sonar signal processing. At SACLANTCEN, he developed jointly with Dr. Sullivan from NUWC an acoustic synthetic aperture technique that has been patented by the U.S. Navy. From 1984 to 1988 he developed an underwater fixed array surveillance system for the Hellenic Navy in Greece and there he was appointed also senior advisor to the Greek Minister of Defence. From 1982 to 1984 he worked as a research associate at York University and in collaboration with the U.S.Army Ballistic Research Lab (BRL), Aberdeen,MD, on projects related to the stability of liquid filled spin stabilized projectiles. In 1984 he was awarded a U.S. NRC Research Fellowship for BRL. He was Associate Editor for the IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering. He has published numerous scientific articles and a Handbook (i.e. CRC-Press) in the areas of advanced signal processing for sonar and medical non-invasive system applications. He has been awarded with European Commission-IST grants as technical manager of several projects that included as project partners major European corporations and Institutes (i.e. Siemens, Nucletron, Philips, Sema Group, Esaote, Atmel, Fraunhofer). These project were entitled “New Roentgen”, “MITTUG”, “ADUMS”, “MRI-MARCB”, “DUST” and Euroworkshop “Fourier” and their budget level was of the order of Euro 1.5 million each. Dr. Stergiopoulos is a Fellow of the Acoustical Society of America and a senior member of the IEEE. He has been a consultant to a number of companies, including Atlas Elektronik in Germany, Hellenic Arms Industry and Hellenic Aerospace Industry.


Dr. Uri Sagman’s Bio:
Dr. Sagman is a medical oncologist, a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, and a fellowship recipient of the Medical Research Council of Canada. He is a recognized researcher in the field of clinical oncology, tumor biology and immunology. Dr. Sagman obtained his training at McGill University, The University of Calgary, The University of Toronto and Oxford University.
Dr. Sagman is the co-founder and Executive Director of the Canadian NanoBusiness Alliance, an association dedicated to the promotion of the nanotechnology sector in Canada. The Canadian NanoBusiness Alliance has a diverse membership, which includes representation of government agencies, academic centers of excellence, industry and the investment community.
Dr. Sagman is cofounder and past President and CEO of C Sixty Inc. At C Sixty, Dr. Sagman has recruited some of the world's leading scientists, including the 1996 Nobel Prize awardee and co-discoverer of fullerenes, to advance the development of fullerene-based technology for biomedical applications. To that end, Dr. Sagman has enlisted a comprehensive R&D network, based at leading academic centers, which include Rice University, UCLA, Columbia University, Dartmouth University, the University of Toronto, Erlangen University in Germany, and the University of Taiwan.
Dr. Sagman is the Chairman of GRN Health International Inc., a globally based academic research organization dedicated to medical research and development. Dr. Sagman is the founder and chairman of GRN Capital Inc., a financial services corporation with merchant banking and investment banking operations based in Toronto , Canada. Dr. Sagman is currently engaged in the development of strategies for National Nanotechnology Initiative programs in several countries, specializing in the development of paradigms for public and private sector alliances. In addition, Dr. Sagman's efforts are focused on the application of nanotechnology to problems of global scope.
Dr. Sagman is the recipient of numerous awards and citations including the Young Investigator awards of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR). He has organized and participated as keynote speaker at numerous nanotechnology-based conferences. Dr. Sagman has been extensively profiled in numerous journal and press publications, including Time Magazine, Newsweek, The Economist, the New York Times, Red Herring, Technology Review, Chemical Engineering, the National Post, the Houston Chronicle, and The Toronto Star amongst others


Determination of Ventricular Pressure and Ventricular Load in the Presence of an Aortic stenosis 
      Dr. Lyes Kadem, Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal

In developed countries, aortic valve stenosis is the most common heart valve disease. Aortic stenosis causes an obstruction to blood flow from the left ventricle to the ascending aorta, as a consequence, the left ventricle has to face an extra load.
The most important parameters used to determine the extra load supported by the left ventricle in the presence of an aortic stenosis use as an input the systolic ventricular pressure. In this presentation, we will show how this pressure can be determined non-invasively using mathematical models and a limited number of parameters measured using Doppler echocardiography.
We will also introduce, in this presentation, a mathematical model to determine the coronary input pressure in the presence of an aortic stenosis..

Dr. Lyes Kadem’s Bio:
Dr. Lyes Kadem received his engineering degree [1998] in mechanical engineering from Univeristé des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, Algiers, Algeria, his master degree and his Ph.D [2004] in biomechanics from Ecole Superieure de Mecanique de Marseille (ESM2); Marseille; France, and another Ph.D [2004] in experimental medicine from Laval University; Quebec; Canada.
From 2004 to 2006, Dr. Lyes Kadem joined as postdoctoral fellow the BioEngineering Laboratory at Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal.
He is currently assistant professor at the department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering; Concordia University; Montreal; Canada.

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